The 20th century saw the erosion of traditional distinctions based on place of manufacture, raw materials, and brewing methods.This has caused a reaction among a small body of consumers.In fact, many of the English terms used in brewing (malt, mash, wort, ale) are Anglo-Saxon in origin.During the Middle Ages the monastic orders preserved brewing as a craft.Brewing in the 21st century is a large-scale industry.Modern breweries use stainless-steel equipment and computer-controlled automated operations, and they package beer in metal casks, glass bottles, aluminum cans, and plastic containers.Brewers in Burton upon Trent, using the famous hard waters of that region and pale malts roasted in coke-fired kilns, created pale Pale ale is less strong, less bitter, paler in colour, and clearer than porter.
Better control over the process, with the use of the thermometer and saccharometer, was developed in Britain and transferred to the Continent, where the development of ice-making and refrigeration equipment in the late 19th century enabled lager beers to be brewed in summer.
Beer production involves malting, milling, mashing, extract separation, hop addition and boiling, removal of hops and precipitates, cooling and aeration, fermentation, separation of yeast from young beer, aging, maturing, and packaging.
The object of the entire process is to convert grain starches to sugar, extract the sugar with water, and then ferment it with yeast to produce the alcoholic, lightly carbonated beverage.amylases, carry out the conversion.
The strength of beer may be measured by the percentage by volume of ethyl alcohol.
Strong beers are in excess of 4 percent, the so-called light beers are fully fermented, low-carbohydrate beers in which enzymes are used to convert normally unfermentable (and high-calorie) carbohydrates to fermentable form.